What comes after open source?
But all of these together are complex systems. Complex technology naturally leads to modularity. Specialists subdivide and conquer that complexity to improve the building blocks, creating fractal competition. Software is the ultimate environment for combinatorial innovation, excelling in all dimensions at an unprecedented scale: The internet is the ultimate connectivity network.
Open source culture continuously refines modules of code. And billions of users with interconnected devices present an unprecedented addressable market. In some ways, software tools are not unlike the products of the industrial era. Like a manufacturing tool, they carry out a particular function, useful in and of itself. In fact, early software predominantly produced better digital versions of industrial information and media processing tools:. Later, as computers became more affordable, ubiquitous and interconnected by the internet, a new breed of service-like software emerged, enabling new modes of communication, collaboration and interaction, upending the top-down models of production and distribution in media industries, and also bringing forth new implications for power and control.
It is self contained. There are no external dependencies. Word processor software, for example, is so useful by itself that successful companies were built selling computers with a single purpose. It offers single player utility. The user is the operator. There is a strong sense of ownership, even property, as well as control, for the user. Copies are interchangeable.
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Not surprisingly, the initial business model for tool-like software was selling licenses. Piracy naturally emerged, since the tools were so useful, but the code was also easy and inexpensive to copy and share. Piracy, in a sense, is natural to the combinatorial innovation process, since intellectual property is a barrier to the flow of ideas. The open source community rapidly created openly-licensed alternatives to most proprietary software, free to reuse and modify. Since the idea of tool software is synonymous with its utility, anyone can attempt to create an alternate, open version from scratch even though open source alternatives were often inferior to proprietary originals.
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Next, as connectivity to the internet became commonplace and the web started to pick up steam, the focus of software innovation shifted from digital productivity tools to programming communication and interactivity between computers. Software edged toward offering new capabilities of being collaborative, multiplayer, dynamic, and social, in turn producing the building blocks for the next generation of software, internet services. To understand the evolution, it is important to to distinguish between the logic code of a program and its ability to remember state.
Early software was functional in nature—an input led to an output. A story in your mind is translated to a digital document with the aid of a word processor. A scanned photo is cropped and text is overlaid with image processing software.
The ability to remember preceding events or user interactions state was primitive and minimal. State input also only came from the single user of the program. As part of Twistlock, Sonya is looking to bring the world of secure cloud native development into the hands of every developer, ensuring that they can make the most of the best cloud native technologies in a secure way.
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Read the Introduction. Book Pages: Illustrations: Published: October Drawing inspiration from activist projects between the s and the present that range from anticapitalist media experiments and vegan food activism to social media campaigns against animal research, Giraud explores possibilities for action while fleshing out the tensions between theory and practice.
Rather than an activist ethics based solely on relationality and entanglement, Giraud calls for what she describes as an ethics of exclusion, which would attend to the entities, practices, and ways of being that are foreclosed when other entangled realities are realized.
Such an ethics of exclusion emphasizes foreclosures in the context of human entanglement in order to foster the conditions for people to create meaningful political change. Paperback Cloth. Availability: In stock. Add to cart. Open Access. Request a desk or exam copy. Table of Contents Back to Top.
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