Chemistry Essentials

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See Terms for more information. Now students who are prepping for exams, preparing to study new material, or who just need a refresher can have a concise, easy-to-understand review guide that covers an entire course by concentrating solely on the most important concepts.

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From algebra and chemistry to grammar and Spanish, our expert authors focus on the skills students most need to succeed in a subject. They're not happy until you are. Bottom line? We guarantee our products and service won't mess up your science study—no matter how messy it gets. Current Stock:. Quantity Decrease Quantity: Increase Quantity:. Shipping Restriction: This product is sensitive to extreme heat and cold.

Talk to an Expert Chat Here are some favorite projects: Rainbow Density Column with a graduated cylinder Food Chemistry Projects with beakers and test tubes. Not for children under 3 years. Learn More. Quick view Add to Cart. What is this? When we visited the Vigeland Park in Oslo in , the connection with carbon was not mentioned in the Vigeland documentation, neither is it now on their web site. The Vigeland human tetrahedron is a strong indication for possible other connections between human and carbon, and stimulates further research.

In chemistry, tetrahedrons often refer to carbon and organic chemistry. We compare the position of human in social and life sciences with carbon in chemistry. We start with some highlights of carbon.

Physical Chemistry Essentials

The importance of carbon for chemistry is illustrated by the fact that organic chemistry sometimes is referred to as carbon chemistry. Every science related education has a course on organic carbon chemistry. No other course in a basic curriculum bachelor is so connected to a specific element. For organic chemistry hydrogen also is indispensable and oxygen, nitrogen and even sulfur are very important atoms. But carbon is the structure forming element due to its ability to form carbon based skeletal chains. From all atoms carbon is the most versatile, at least in its flexibility and innovative forces that allow it to form the most diverse carbon based skeletal structures.

For the development of life many chemical elements are essential, but carbon has by its skeletal abilities a central and crucial position. Carbon has also a central position in the periodic table. Carbon is the first element of main group IVA group Due to its outer shell electron configuration, carbon has a valence of four. The properties of carbon mentioned above resemble to some extent human properties. I give a few examples. In view of our search, valence four can be easily connected to a human action with four limbs.

Chambers, Becky / Qualitative Chemistry Calendar

The flexibility and innovative abilities of humans result in extremely high performances and results in all facets of social life the social live octet : communication, economy, entertainment, politics, religion, social organization including family, activities carts, dances, sports … and technology.

Just like carbon forms an electron octet by means of its bond connected atoms, humans are interconnected by the social life octet. Everyone is embedded in a more or less complex skeletal structured network of social interactions that also include non-human participations such as animals, plants, minerals, nature, and technical products car, PC, smart phone, …. To some extent, what carbon is in chemistry are human beings in society and nature, and what humans are in the life sciences is carbon at the atomic and molecular level.

Scientists mostly classify humans as animals. In the human and animal realm humans have a central, interconnecting position like carbon in the molecular realm. The human plan is the model to which all other life forms can be connected. Jos Verhulst demonstrates this human centered connection, besides in various publications, also in his book Developmental Dynamics 6.

A few typical carbon forms may attract our attention; diamond and graphite. The hardest and one of the smoothest minerals are comprised in one chemical element. It is our purpose to search the human related properties of diamond and graphite and we can find them at the psychical level of human organization.

Diamonds are polished by other diamonds. We comparable develop polish our psychical structure at most in relations and even more in conflicting relations. Humans need each other to develop wisdom, starting at childhood in family, child care, and later on in education and social networks.

In our souls, we figuratively have and need both these carbon forms but it depends on the circumstances which of them we should use most. For example, we need the figurative softness of graphite to make our relations smoothly and the hardness of diamond to conquer the evil in our own soul. The Vigeland tetrahedral man invites us to develop a chemistry structure, a model that makes the human connected powers of chemistry visible.

The biochemically relevant functional group reactions are a logical chemistry domain to demonstrate this quest. From a biochemical viewpoint, organic chemistry is in the first place the chemistry of the functional groups that are necessary for biochemistry. In this respect, the author developed a mnemonic model 7 , p. Figure 2 is an improved version and is adapted to reference 8 8. In Figure 2 , the idea of a tetrahedral model is reduced to a planar projection indicating reactions of which most are shown in the form of four limbs. This model shows basic reactions of functional groups in view of their connection to the four main biomolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.

Chemistry – Australian Curriculum – Second Edition

The main structure determining parameters of Figure 2 are the oxidation levels OLs of carbons that are bonded to a functional group or the functional group carbons. Figure 2 shows each of the functional groups on their corresponding OL. Because of the OL difference between reactants arrows are also used to connect reactants for reaction.

The bold print reaction arrows on OL three bent downward according to gravitational forces and the ones on OL two bent upwards according to forces that make humans and most plants stand up. The bold print reaction arrows indicate the connection to the human tetrahedron in a planar projection.

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The model extends the reference 7 model with indications of the condensation reactions of aldehydes, ketones and esters in strong alkali conditions. The latter reactions are at OL two for aldehydes and ketones and at OL three for esters. They are important in respectively carbohydrate and fatty acid chemistry, both to change the chain length of respectively monosaccharides and fatty acids. The organic chemistry functional groups depicted on the limbs of the model are connected to the main biomolecules as follows: Hemi-acetals in the monosaccharide ring structure, acetals in the glycoside bonds of polysaccharides, imines for the biosynthesis of nucleobases and the formation of amino acids from imino acids, esters in triglycerides and derivatives, phosphodiesters in nucleic acids, and amides in the protein peptide bonds.

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Alkanes RH and the R-groups of the various functional groups correspond to respectively the brain and the ubiquitous nerves. The OLs on the central axis of the figure correspond the spinal cord. The polymerization reaction of alkenes, although not a bio polymerization, corresponds to the repeating sequence of vertebrae from the spinal cord and the ribs of the thorax.

The embryologic polymerization process for the formation of ribs and spinal cord is strictly restricted and follows heritable laws. The movements of the chest are mainly restricted to the breathing process, which can be regarded as a rhythmic propagation process. Alcohols and amines correspond to the lungs, aldehydes and ketones to the celiac plexus solar plexus and the R 1 COZ variable to the intestines. In reference 7 , the heart position is assigned to the arenes aromatic compounds.

In Figure 2 , they could be located on the left of the aldehydes and ketones but are omitted to focus on carbonyl reactions.

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The comparable reaction conditions of aldolisation and ester condensation connect them together at the edge between the two OLs just as the diaphragm separates chest and intestine. It must be admitted that the location of the aldolisation and ester condensation is a little lower than it should be.

Oxoniums and ammoniums should be at the hip position but are depicted outside for clarity.

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