Although none of his additional works were ever published, his notes have survived. He received a Bachelors of Science in Mechanical Engineering in followed by a Masters of Science in Mechanical Engineering in , both at Purdue University where he went on to teach and remained on faculty for 35 years. Prior to that William worked as a draftsman and signal engineer for Western Electric Company, and the Burlington and Quincy Railroad in Chicago from Following his retirement Mr.
Herrick Laboratories at Purdue University, the first of its kind. Its successes have had a great influence on expanding industry support of graduate student research that in the s was usually limited to supporting fellowships. John Gorrie — is the first documented American to propose and construct a mechanical refrigeration machine for making ice. But he was also the first American to use mechanical refrigeration for comfort cooling.
Gorrie was a medical doctor practicing general medicine beginning in the s from his home in Apalachicola in the panhandle of Florida. He became so interested in the connection of heat and humidity to disease that he proposed, in an article, to cool entire cities using mechanical refrigeration. Within two years, he constructed an air cycle refrigerating machine to provide refrigerated air. His U. Patent is the first to be issued for mechanical refrigeration.
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One of his machines was installed in Havana, Cuba and another in London. He published a promotional pamphlet for an ice making system in , but unable to successfully launch his machine, he become despondent and died in He applied for another U. Patent on a comfort cooling system which was never issued. His air cycle system ideas were later refined and produced by others. As a Kentucky schoolboy in , he was fascinated by the ice formation on the underside of a plate of boiling ether. After serving as a pilot on the Mississippi River, he became interested in engineering, attending a technical school in Cincinnati.
Holden then served in the cavalry during the American Civil War, retiring as a Major. The Civil War cut off the natural ice supply that came south from sources like Maine and New York state forcing the Texas beef industry and breweries to encourage inventiveness in mechanical ice making. It did not, however, produce clear ice. Holden made several improvements to the design and used distilled water to produce the first crystal clear ice in Texas. In Holden acquired several patents on his own designs to improve ice making techniques.
Holden also developed the first mechanically refrigerated abattoir in Fulton, Texas for the purpose of chilling and curing beef for shipment to Liverpool England and other destinations. The Texas beef industry applauded his improvements, which greatly reduced product losses. He was issued 15 U. In , as a college professor at State Normal School now University of Wisconsin — Whitewater , he was frustrated by the inability to regulate his individual classroom temperatures, so he developed a thermostat, which he deployed at the State Normal School.
He called the instrument an "electric tele-thermoscope" in the patent application. It was a bi-metal coiled thermostat with a mercury switch, which could be used to ring a bell to alert the fireman to open or close the heating damper. While not the first bi-metal thermostat, Johnson received a patent for the device. Warren Johnson and a group of Milwaukee investors incorporated Johnson Electric Service Company in in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to manufacture install and service automatic temperature regulation systems for buildings. The amplified air signal from the regulator was then used to control a steam or hot water valve on a heat exchanger, or to control a damper of a forced air system.
He received a patent for the system in His multi-zone pneumatic control system solved the problem. Johnson continued to invent additional control devices, as well as products such as chandeliers, spring-less door locks, puncture-proof tires, thermometers, and a hose coupling for providing steam heat to passenger railcars.
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His passion for invention continued throughout his life, resulting in more than 50 patents during his career, mostly for devices aimed at harnessing the sustainable power derived from air, steam or fluid pressure. Warren Johnson died December 5, at the age of Johnson Electric Service Company, which eventually became Johnson Controls in , decided to focus on the temperature control business for nonresidential buildings.
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Carl Linde studied Mechanical Engineering at Zurich Polytechnic and beginning in was employed as a locomotive builder. His articles in the journal focused on the thermodynamics of mechanical systems. In , he entered a contest to invent a system that would keep paraffin at a uniform low temperature year round. Linde pursued the project using a rigorous thermodynamic approach to analyze existing systems of refrigeration resulting in a vapor-compression refrigeration system that was energy efficient as well as practical in cost.
He published his analysis in two papers in Mechanical methods of extracting heat at low temperatures and Advanced Ice and Refrigerating Machines which lead him to design and patent a very efficient ammonia vapor compression system in These papers came to the attention of members of the German brewing industry who approached Linde requesting that he construct a refrigerating machine which after some experiments furthered the design and patent of his advanced ammonia vapor- compression system. His refrigeration machines were sold throughout the world, particularly to breweries.
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In the US, his systems were sold by the Fred W. Continue Cancel Send email OK. Narrow your search:. Page 1 of 3. Next page. Recent searches:.
French physicist and engineer. Carnot at age George Catlin was an American painter, author and traveler who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West. Charles Mackie. Edinburgh journal of natural history and of the physical sciences. Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work..
Macgillivray, William, , ed; Cuvier, Georges, baron, Animal kingdom of the Baron Cuvier adapted to the present state of zoological science. Edinburgh Transhipment warehouse at Whaley Bridge wharf on the Peak Forest canal, Begun in , saw its first traffic in and was completed by Little is known of George Vincent's early childhood. Clement's Church Alley, close to the River Wensum in the centre of the city. According to an article from the Eastern Daily Press , the young Vincent enjoyed drawing with charcoal.
On leaving school Vincent was apprenticed to Crome, perhaps as early as ,  along with fellow pupils John Berney Crome and James Stark.
The three friends, of whom Vincent was the most talented,  travelled together on sketching and painting trips, influencing each other's artistic styles in the process. In , together with James Stark, he enrolled as a student at the British Institute's school, but after two years Stark was forced to return home to Norwich due to ill health. At this time Vincent was himself ill, although the reason for his poor health is not given by any sources or mentioned in his published letters.
On 3 November Vincent married nineteen-year-old Mary Elizabeth Cugnoni, the only daughter of the physician James Cugnoni, who was, according to James Stark, extremely wealthy. Vincent bought what the art historians Richard and Samuel Redgrave considered a "good house" in Camden Town ,  [note 5] which was subsequently sold when his wife's money failed to materialise, for reasons that have never been explained,  and he was unable to generate enough income from his paintings.
By the summer of Vincent and his wife had moved and were living at 26 Upper Thornhaugh Street, close to Bedford Square, in a more affordable house closer to the centre of London. Vincent's health deteriorated and his debts mounted, in part because of his drinking habits. The 'folly' referred to in the letter seems to have been the cause of a permanent rift between Vincent and Stark, as well as with Vincent's father, already troubled by his intemperance. The letter is one of a group he wrote to Davey, which reveal his serious financial problems and the "infamy" which was levelled at him.
In another letter written in October that year to Davey, Vincent mentioned, "To me it has been — and likewise to my better half — a great source of pleasure to wander over the scenes of former days", with the implication that he was still happily married at this time. Vincent's increasing alcoholism exacerbated his debt problems. He revealed the embarrassment he felt upon being incarcerated in a debtors' prison in a letter to Davey written in December , requesting, "As it will be necessary to name it to J.
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